郭乐扬,李文戈,吴新锋,姜涛,张士陶,张杨杨.防/疏冰涂料的机理及其发展趋势[J].表面技术,2022,51(11):113-125, 163.
GUO Le-yang,LI Wen-ge,WU Xin-feng,JIANG Tao,ZHANG Shi-tao,ZHANG Yang-yang.Mechanism and Development Trend of Anti-ice/Deicing Coating[J].Surface Technology,2022,51(11):113-125, 163
防/疏冰涂料的机理及其发展趋势
Mechanism and Development Trend of Anti-ice/Deicing Coating
  
DOI:10.16490/j.cnki.issn.1001-3660.2022.11.010
中文关键词:  防冰涂料  疏冰涂料  超疏水表面  相变材料  光热材料
英文关键词:anti-icing coating  deicing coating  super-hydrophobic surface  phase change material  photothermal material
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目(52072236);上海高水平地方高校创新团队(海事安全与保障)
作者单位
郭乐扬 上海海事大学 商船学院,上海 201306 
李文戈 上海海事大学 商船学院,上海 201306 
吴新锋 上海海事大学 商船学院,上海 201306 
姜涛 上海海事大学 商船学院,上海 201306 
张士陶 上海海事大学 商船学院,上海 201306 
张杨杨 上海海事大学 商船学院,上海 201306 
AuthorInstitution
GUO Le-yang Shanghai Maritime University, Merchant Marine College, Shanghai 201306, China 
LI Wen-ge Shanghai Maritime University, Merchant Marine College, Shanghai 201306, China 
WU Xin-feng Shanghai Maritime University, Merchant Marine College, Shanghai 201306, China 
JIANG Tao Shanghai Maritime University, Merchant Marine College, Shanghai 201306, China 
ZHANG Shi-tao Shanghai Maritime University, Merchant Marine College, Shanghai 201306, China 
ZHANG Yang-yang Shanghai Maritime University, Merchant Marine College, Shanghai 201306, China 
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中文摘要:
      防/疏冰涂料在冬季低温灾害以及极端冰冻天气所带来的损失面前显得尤为重要,因此解决表面结冰这一问题吸引了大量学者进行研究和讨论。将防/疏冰涂料的机理分为结构型和物理化学型,前者主要形式为在基材表面构建微纳米粗糙结构,后者主要形式为在涂料中添加可以通过自身的物理化学性质防止水滴滞留表面、延缓结冰或使冰易从表面脱落的材料。首先将结构型防/疏冰的微观机理按提出时间的进程进行总结,主要有Young方程、Wenzel方程和Cassie-Baxter方程,然后将现有文献中构建微纳米级粗糙结构的主要方法进行分类。其次,同样将物理化学型防/疏冰的微观机理按提出时间的进程进行总结,物理化学型防/疏冰材料主要有低表面能、光热、相变材料,研究中常将这2种防/疏冰机理结合使用以达到最佳效果。最后展望了防/疏冰涂料的发展趋势,在未来研发过程中,其稳定性、广泛适用性和经济实用性应被充分考虑,这三者并非完全独立,而是相辅相成,可以提升防/疏冰涂料应用的深度和广度,积极响应市场的需求。另外,制定统一的性能测试标准也将更好地助力防/疏冰涂料的研究。
英文摘要:
      Facing the loss caused by low temperature disaster and extreme freezing weather, anti-ice/deicing coating is particularly important. Eliminating the ice on the surface has attracted a large number of scholars to research. The mechanism of anti-ice/deicing coating is divided into structural type and physicochemical type. The former is mainly in the form of building micro-nano rough structure on the surface of substrate. The latter is mainly in the form of adding materials that can prevent water droplets from staying on the surface, delay icing or make ice easily fall off through its own physical and chemical properties. Firstly, the microstructure mechanism of structural anti-ice/deicing is summarized according to the proposed time, which mainly including Young equation, Wenzel equation and Cassie-Baxter equation. Then, the main methods of building micro-nano rough structure in the existing literature are reviewed. The surface hydrophobicity can be increased and hysteresis Angle can be reduced by constructing micro-nano rough structure. According to the classical nucleation theory and nucleation free energy barrier formula, the superhydrophobic surface can improve the anti-icing property of coating. The decrease of lag Angle can shorten the retention time of water droplets on the coating surface and prevent the retention into ice. Existing methods can successfully construct micro-nano rough structures on the surface of substrate which meet the requirements of hydrophobicity, but they are limited in practical application. The size of the workpiece and the use environment should be considered to select a convenient, feasible and economical construction method. Secondly, the microscopic mechanism of physicochemical type anti-ice/deicing is also summarized according to the progress of proposed time. Physicochemical anti-ice/deicing materials mainly include low surface energy, photothermal and phase change materials. In most of the study, these two kinds of anti-ice/ deicing mechanisms are often combined to achieve the best effect. Coating is mainly composed of film forming substances, functional fillers, solvents and additives. The main functional fillers of anti-ice coatings are superhydrophobic materials, that is, to construct micro-nano structures or reduce surface energy. The fillers which can reduce the surface energy mainly include fluorine carbon and fluorine silicon materials. In addition, functional fillers include photothermal materials and phase change materials. These fillers can reduce the retention time of water droplets, increase the melting rate of ice after formation and delay the freezing time of ice. Finally, the development trend of anti-ice coating is prospected. At present, there are many researches on anti-ice/deicing surface, and mature products have been put into the market. However, there is no best but better material field. With the progress and improvement of science and technology, scientists need to continuously research and optimize. In the process of future research, the stability, wide applicability and economic practicality of anti-ice/deicing materials should be fully considered. They are not completely independent, but complementary, which can improve the depth and breadth of anti-ice coating application, and actively respond to the market demand. In addition, the performance measurement of anti-ice/deicing coating varies from researcher to researcher, and there is no definite standard for time scale and force size in the test, which is not helpful for researchers to analyze and compare previous experimental data. The development of a unified performance test standard will also better assist the research of anti-ice/deicing coating.
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