孙勇辉,闫洪,兰昊,黄传兵,于守泉,孙小明,张伟刚.激光熔覆Ni-Al2O3复合涂层的微观结构与耐腐蚀性能研究[J].表面技术,2024,53(1):143-152.
SUN Yonghui,YAN Hong,LAN Hao,HUANG Chuanbing,YU Shouquan,SUN Xiaoming,ZHANG Weigang.Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Ni-Al2O3 Composite Coating Prepared by Laser Cladding[J].Surface Technology,2024,53(1):143-152
激光熔覆Ni-Al2O3复合涂层的微观结构与耐腐蚀性能研究
Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Ni-Al2O3 Composite Coating Prepared by Laser Cladding
投稿时间:2022-11-21  修订日期:2023-05-05
DOI:10.16490/j.cnki.issn.1001-3660.2024.01.014
中文关键词:  激光熔覆  复合涂层  微观结构  显微硬度  耐腐蚀性能
英文关键词:laser cladding  composite coating  microstructure  microhardness  corrosion resistance
基金项目:中国科学院重点部署项目(ZDRW-CN-2021-3);中国科学院赣江创新研究院自主部署项目(E155D001,E055A002);中国科学院绿色过程制造创新研究院稀土产业基金(IAGM 2020DB04)
作者单位
孙勇辉 中国科学院赣江创新研究院,江西 赣州 341119;中国科学院过程工程研究所,北京 100190 
闫洪 南昌大学 先进制造学院,南昌 330031 
兰昊 中国科学院赣江创新研究院,江西 赣州 341119;中国科学院过程工程研究所,北京 100190 
黄传兵 中国科学院赣江创新研究院,江西 赣州 341119;中国科学院过程工程研究所,北京 100190 
于守泉 中国科学院赣江创新研究院,江西 赣州 341119;中国科学院过程工程研究所,北京 100190 
孙小明 中国科学院赣江创新研究院,江西 赣州 341119;中国科学院过程工程研究所,北京 100190 
张伟刚 中国科学院赣江创新研究院,江西 赣州 341119;中国科学院过程工程研究所,北京 100190 
AuthorInstitution
SUN Yonghui Ganjiang Innovation Academy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jiangxi Ganzhou 341119, China;Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China 
YAN Hong School of Advanced Manufacturing, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, China 
LAN Hao Ganjiang Innovation Academy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jiangxi Ganzhou 341119, China;Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China 
HUANG Chuanbing Ganjiang Innovation Academy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jiangxi Ganzhou 341119, China;Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China 
YU Shouquan Ganjiang Innovation Academy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jiangxi Ganzhou 341119, China;Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China 
SUN Xiaoming Ganjiang Innovation Academy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jiangxi Ganzhou 341119, China;Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China 
ZHANG Weigang Ganjiang Innovation Academy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jiangxi Ganzhou 341119, China;Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China 
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中文摘要:
      目的 解决Cr-Ni系不锈钢在重腐蚀工业环境中本体耐腐蚀性能不足的问题。方法 采用激光熔覆技术制备Ni-Al2O3复合涂层,利用X射线衍射、扫描电镜、能谱仪(EDS)和显微硬度计、电化学工作站等技术研究所制备涂层的微观结构、相组成和元素分布,分析Al2O3含量对复合涂层形貌、显微硬度和耐腐蚀性能的影响规律。结果 复合涂层组织均匀、无明显缺陷,与基体之间存在明显的冶金结合区,沿着该复合涂层深度方向的微观结构依次呈现为胞状晶、定向生长的柱状晶及细小的等轴晶,物相则由均匀分布于复合涂层顶部的Al2O3颗粒和金属间化合物(Fe-Ni、Fe-Ni-Cr固溶体)构成。随着Al2O3含量的增大,复合涂层的显微硬度呈先增大后减小的趋势,腐蚀电位呈先增大后减小的趋势,而失重腐蚀速率和腐蚀电流密度呈先减小后增大的趋势,涂层的耐腐蚀性能呈先增强后减弱的趋势。在Ni-x%Al2O3(x为0、0.15、0.25、0.35,质量分数)复合涂层中,Ni-25%Al2O3复合涂层具有较高的显微硬度和良好的耐腐蚀性能,该涂层的显微硬度达到1 026.3HV,腐蚀失重速率为0.15 mg/(cm2.h),腐蚀电压和腐蚀电流密度分别为–326.6 mV和38.6 µA/cm2。当继续增加Al2O3的含量时,气孔和裂纹等缺陷开始增多,复合涂层的显微硬度和耐腐蚀性能均呈现下降趋势。研究表明,Ni-x%Al2O3(x≤25)复合涂层的显微硬度和耐腐蚀性能的变化由细晶强化、固溶强化和颗粒强化协同作用所致。结论 激光熔覆Ni-25%Al2O3复合涂层具有较高的硬度和良好的耐腐蚀性,可以有效防护Cr-Ni系不锈钢,提高重腐蚀工业环境下机械零件的耐蚀性和使役寿命。
英文摘要:
      As Cr-Ni stainless steel has high strength and excellent corrosion resistance, it is widely applied in industrial machinery parts. However, the surface of Cr-Ni stainless steel is easy to be damaged in a severe corrosion industrial environment and long-term wear conditions, resulting in failure of industrial parts. Advanced surface strengthening technologies can greatly improve the service period and repair economic cost of parts. Laser cladding of composite coatings is an ideal technology to strengthen the surface of Cr-Ni stainless steel. To solve the problem of insufficient corrosion resistance of Cr-Ni stainless steel applied in a severe corrosive industrial environment, a Ni-Al2O3 composite coating was fabricated by laser cladding. It was expected to strengthen the surface of Cr-Ni stainless steel by combining the high chemical stability of metal Ni with the high hardness strengthening effect of ceramic particle Al2O3. At present, there are many studies on corrosion resistance of the composite coating, but there are relatively few studies on the corrosion resistance of the Ni-Al2O3 composite coating prepared by laser cladding with different Al2O3 content. The microstructure, phase composition and elemental distribution of the Ni-Al2O3 composite coating were studied with an X-ray diffraction (XRD), a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and an energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The influences of Al2O3 content on the morphology, microhardness and corrosion resistance of the composite coating were investigated by a SEM, a microhardness tester and an electrochemical workstation. Besides, the strengthening mechanism of the Ni-Al2O3 composite coating was also studied. The results showed that a homogeneous and defect-free composite coating was successfully prepared. An obvious metallurgical bonding zone (MBZ) was observed at the interface of the composite coating and the substrate. The microstructure along the direction of the composite coating depth successively exhibited cellular crystal, oriented columnar crystal and fine equiaxed crystal. The phases of the composite coating were composed of Al2O3 ceramic particles evenly distributed on top of the composite coating and Fe-Ni, Fe-Ni-Cr solid solution. With the increase of Al2O3 content, the microhardness of the composite coating increased and then decreased. The corrosion potential of the Ni-Al2O3 composite coating increased first and then decreased, while the weight loss corrosion rate and corrosion current density decreased and then increased, resulting in the enhanced corrosion resistance of the coating and then weakened. Among these Ni-x%Al2O3 (x=0, 15, 25, 35, mass fraction) composite coatings, the Ni-25%Al2O3 composite coating possessed both the highest microhardness and the strongest corrosion resistance. The microhardness of the Ni-25%Al2O3 composite coating reached 1 026.3HV, and its weight loss rate for corrosion was 0.15 mg/(cm2.h). The corrosion potential and corrosion current density of the Ni-25%Al2O3 composite coating were –326.6 mV and 38.6 µA/cm2, respectively. Once the Al2O3 content exceeded the 25% limit, the ceramic layer thickened with the increasing channels for corrosion, defects such as pores and cracks increased, resulting in a decrease of both microhardness and corrosion resistance of the composite coating. Based on mechanism studies, both microhardness and corrosion resistance of the Ni-x%Al2O3(x≤25) composite coating varied with the laser cladding and the addition of Al2O3 particles, which induced a synergistic effect from grain refinement strengthening, solid solution strengthening and particle strengthening. The Ni-25%Al2O3 composite coating prepared by laser cladding possesses both the highest microhardness, strongest corrosion resistance and can effectively provide protection for Cr-Ni stainless steel, which is conducive to the high corrosion resistance and long-term service life of industrial machinery parts in a severe corrosive industrial environment.
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