张孟佳,狄泽超,李媛,张雪涛,黄东升.两种硫代磷酸酯型极压抗磨剂对自动传动液抗颤性的影响[J].表面技术,2024,53(1):105-114.
ZHANG Mengjia,DI Zechao,LI Yuan,ZHANG Xuetao,HUANG Dongsheng.Effects of Two Types of Phosphorothioate-type Extreme Pressure and Anti-wear Agents on Anti-shudder Performance of Automatic Transmission Fluid[J].Surface Technology,2024,53(1):105-114
两种硫代磷酸酯型极压抗磨剂对自动传动液抗颤性的影响
Effects of Two Types of Phosphorothioate-type Extreme Pressure and Anti-wear Agents on Anti-shudder Performance of Automatic Transmission Fluid
投稿时间:2023-01-04  修订日期:2023-09-25
DOI:10.16490/j.cnki.issn.1001-3660.2024.01.010
中文关键词:  自动传动液  硫代磷酸酯  极压抗磨剂  抗颤性  摩擦反应膜
英文关键词:automatic transmission fluid  phosphorothioate  extreme pressure and anti-wear agent  anti-shudder performance  friction film
基金项目:
作者单位
张孟佳 中国石油大连润滑油研究开发中心,辽宁 大连 116032 
狄泽超 中国石油大连润滑油研究开发中心,辽宁 大连 116032 
李媛 中国石油大连润滑油研究开发中心,辽宁 大连 116032 
张雪涛 中国石油大连润滑油研究开发中心,辽宁 大连 116032 
黄东升 中国石油大连润滑油研究开发中心,辽宁 大连 116032 
AuthorInstitution
ZHANG Mengjia Dalian Lubricating Oil Research & Development Institute, Petro China, Liaoling Dalian 116032, China 
DI Zechao Dalian Lubricating Oil Research & Development Institute, Petro China, Liaoling Dalian 116032, China 
LI Yuan Dalian Lubricating Oil Research & Development Institute, Petro China, Liaoling Dalian 116032, China 
ZHANG Xuetao Dalian Lubricating Oil Research & Development Institute, Petro China, Liaoling Dalian 116032, China 
HUANG Dongsheng Dalian Lubricating Oil Research & Development Institute, Petro China, Liaoling Dalian 116032, China 
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中文摘要:
      目的 探究2种硫代磷酸酯型商品化极压抗磨剂三苯基硫代磷酸酯衍生物(AW-1)和酸性硫代磷酸酯(AW-2)对自动传动液抗颤性能的影响。方法 参考JASO M349,采用能够高度模拟汽车离合器片工况的德国盘–盘型摩擦试验机(WAZAU)对含有上述2种硫代磷酸酯型极压抗磨剂的自动传动液的抗颤性进行对比测试,并采用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)和X射线能谱仪(EDS)对摩擦表面的形貌和元素进行深入分析。结果 虽然AW-1、AW-2是润滑油中常用的硫代磷酸酯型极压抗磨剂,但二者的分子结构存在差异,在摩擦副表面形成摩擦反应膜的形式也不尽相同。各含量AW-1形成的反应膜中均含有硫、磷、钙等元素,且随着油品中AW-1含量的增加,各元素的含量会发生不同程度的变化。低含量AW-2形成的反应膜中含有硫、磷、钙等元素,但高含量AW-2形成的反应膜基本不含硫、磷、钙元素。结论 通过扫描电子显微镜和EDS能谱对摩擦后的钢盘进行了分析,结果显示,AW-1和AW-2硫代磷酸酯型极压抗磨剂在摩擦副表面形成摩擦反应膜的机理不同。AW-1分子中的硫元素在摩擦副表面生成了S-Fe膜,磷元素与清净剂中的钙元素生成了抗颤性优良的Ca-P膜,因此含有AW-1的ATF的抗颤性优异。AW-2中的羧基与钢盘表面的铁元素发生反应,生成了硫代磷酸酯铁盐,并沉积在金属表面,这在一定程度上抑制了S-Fe反应膜和Ca-P反应膜的生成,因此相应油品的抗颤性能不佳。
英文摘要:
      The work aims to investigate the effect of two commercialized phosphorothioate-type extreme pressure anti-wear agents, triphenylthiophosphate (AW-1) and acidic sulfur-phosphorus ester (AW-2), on the anti-shudder performance of automatic transmission fluid. Referring to the Japanese JASO M349 standard, a German WAZAU disc-type friction tester that could simulate the working conditions of the automotive clutch plates was used to compare and test the anti-shudder performance of automatic transmission fluid containing the two anti-wear agents. The morphology and elements of the friction surface were further analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Although AW-1 and AW-2 were commonly used phosphorothioate-type extreme pressure anti-wear agents in lubricating oils, the form of the friction film formed on the friction pair surface was not the same due to differences in molecular structure. The friction film formed by AW-1 contained sulfur, phosphorus, calcium and other elements, and the content of each element changed to varying degrees as the AW-1 content in the oil increased. The friction film formed by low content AW-2 contained sulfur, phosphorus, calcium and other elements, but the friction film formed by high content AW-2 almost did not contain sulfur, phosphorus, and calcium elements. The contribution of each anti-wear agent to the anti-shudder performance of automatic transmission fluid was different. AW-1 performed better in improving the anti-shudder performance of automatic transmission fluid. The analysis of the post-friction steel discs by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDS) spectroscopy reveals that the mechanism of forming the friction film on the surface of the friction pairs is different for the two types of phosphorothioate-type extreme pressure (EP) anti-wear agents, AW-1 and AW-2. AW-1, a derivative of triphenyl sulfide phosphoric acid ester, generates an S-Fe film on the surface of the friction pair, where the sulfur element in the molecule reacts with the iron element on the metal surface. The phosphorus element in the molecule reacts with the calcium element in the cleaning agent to form a Ca-P film, which exhibits excellent anti-shudder performance. Consequently, AW-1 exhibits superior anti-shudder performance in improving the automatic transmission fluid. On the other hand, AW-2 is an acidic sulfur-phosphorus ester, containing carboxyl groups that react with the iron element on the surface of the steel disc to form a sulfide phosphoric acid ester iron salt. This salt deposits on the metal surface, forming a reactive deposition film. For low concentrations of AW-2, the inhibitory effect on the S-Fe and Ca-P friction films is not significant. However, for high concentrations of AW-2, it inhibits the generation of both S-Fe and Ca-P friction films. Therefore, high concentrations of AW-2 do not contribute to anti-shudder performance. In conclusion, the SEM and EDS results show that the mechanism of forming the friction film on the surface of the friction pairs is different for AW-1 and AW-2. AW-1 generates S-Fe and Ca-P friction films, while AW-2 forms a reactive deposition film. The inhibitory effect of AW-2 on the generation of S-Fe and Ca-P friction films is dependent on its concentration. Thus, understanding the different mechanisms of these EP agents is crucial for selecting the appropriate lubricants to enhance the performance of automatic transmission fluids.
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