纪越,张彦鹏,李醒飞,张志佳.液态镓合金与铜电极间接触电阻特性与可靠性提升[J].表面技术,2023,52(10):267-277.
JI Yue,ZHANG Yan-peng,LI Xing-fei,ZHANG Zhi-jia.Characteristics and Reliability Improvement of Contact Resistance between Liquid Gallium Alloy and Copper Electrode[J].Surface Technology,2023,52(10):267-277
液态镓合金与铜电极间接触电阻特性与可靠性提升
Characteristics and Reliability Improvement of Contact Resistance between Liquid Gallium Alloy and Copper Electrode
投稿时间:2022-09-02  修订日期:2023-03-01
DOI:10.16490/j.cnki.issn.1001-3660.2023.10.022
中文关键词:  气相沉积法  接触电阻  液态金属  接触应力  膜层  石墨烯
英文关键词:vapor deposition method  contact resistance  liquid metal  contact stress  film  graphene
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目(62173245);国家自然科学基金重点项目(61733012)
作者单位
纪越 天津工业大学 控制科学与工程学院,天津 300387;天津工业大学天津市电气装备智能控制重点实验室,天津 300387 
张彦鹏 天津工业大学 控制科学与工程学院,天津 300387;天津工业大学天津市电气装备智能控制重点实验室,天津 300387 
李醒飞 天津大学 精密测试技术及仪器国家重点实验室,天津 300072 
张志佳 天津工业大学材料科学与工程学院,天津 300387 
AuthorInstitution
JI Yue School of Control Science and Engineering,Tianjin 300387, China ;Tianjin Key Laboratory of Intelligent Control of Electrical Equipment,Tianjin 300387, China 
ZHANG Yan-peng School of Control Science and Engineering,Tianjin 300387, China ;Tianjin Key Laboratory of Intelligent Control of Electrical Equipment,Tianjin 300387, China 
LI Xing-fei State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China 
ZHANG Zhi-jia School of Material Science and Engineering, Tiangong University, Tianjin 300387, China 
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中文摘要:
      目的 针对使用液态金属的电气设备中源极输出电阻波动的抑制问题,分析接触电阻随接触面间接触应力的变化规律,探索电极材料镀膜方法减小膜层电阻变化进而提高接触可靠性。方法 理论推导建立了镓合金与铜电极的固液接触电阻理论模型,并据此使用COMSOL Multipyhsics软件仿真了随着接触应力的变化接触电阻的变化情况。使用化学气相沉积法在铜基底上生长碳纳米薄膜来减小膜层电阻对铜电极的影响,并对生长了石墨烯薄膜的电极与镓合金的接触电阻进行了稳定性实验。结果 仿真结果表明接触电阻随着接触应力的增加而减小,接触应力较小时的接触电阻变化较大,随着接触应力的不断增加,接触电阻变化也逐渐缓慢,并进行了实验验证;通过调整化学气相沉积法中碳源的通入量来生长更符合电极使用条件的石墨烯薄膜,在6 mL/min乙炔流量下生长的石墨烯薄膜接触电阻由未生长石墨烯薄膜的246 μΩ减小到165 μΩ,减小了镓合金与铜电极间的固液接触电阻,并且自身电阻值增加较小。长期稳定性实验也表明石墨烯薄膜可以有效防护铜电极,并通过相关的接触角实验进一步分析了生长碳纳米薄膜后电极表面润湿性变化。结论 铜电极表面生长石墨烯薄膜可以有效防护电极,提高铜基底电极与液态镓合金形成固液接触电阻的稳定性,同时控制接触面的接触应力,可以量化控制接触电阻的数量级。
英文摘要:
      This paper mainly analyzes the characteristics of the contact resistance between copper electrode and gallium-indium-tin alloy. In order to solve the fluctuation problem of the output resistance, the change rule of contact resistance with different contact stress was analyzed. Besides, the electrode coating method was explored to reduce the change of film resistance and improve contact reliability. Firstly, the theoretical model of solid-liquid contact resistance was established by theoretical derivation. According to the model, the change of contact resistance with the state of contact stress was simulated by COMSOL Multiphysics software. Secondly, in order to avoid the reaction between the copper electrode and gallium-indium-tin alloy, the copper electrode was covered by high-performance graphene films. The amount of acetylene gas as a carbon source in the graphene growth process played a very important role in the thickness and quality of the generated graphene. The copper sheet was used as the substrate in the experiment, and hydrogenated graphite was grown on its surface by low temperature chemical vapor deposition. The three-dimensional network graphene could be grown on copper substrates by pyrolysis at high temperature and rapid cooling. Different thicknesses of graphene film material growing on copper substrates were made to reduce the effect of the film on solid-liquid contact resistance. Thirdly, a contact angle measurement apparatus was used to measure the contact angle of gallium-indium-tin alloys on the copper electrode with different grown films. A self-assembled device consisted of acrylic glass, micro-ohmeter, computer and other equipment was designed to measure the contact resistance. The contact angle and the solid-liquid contact resistance with different substrate films were measured and analyzed. In terms of the contact resistance research based on contact pressure, the simulation results showed that the contact resistance decreased with the increase of contact stress. The decrease amplitude of the contact resistance was great when contact stress was small. In terms of the contact resistance research based on films, growth of high-quality graphene films could be regulated by the volume flow rate of acetylene gas during graphene growth. Four acetylene gases with the volume flow rates of 17 mL/min, 12 mL/min, 9 mL/min, 6 mL/min were selected as carbon sources. When 6 mL/min of acetylene gas was introduced, the graphene film was thinner and more uniform and the contact resistance was reduced from the 246 μΩ to 165 μΩ. In order to analyze the effect of the film, a wettability experiment using the contact angle meter was performed. The contact angles between the liquid gallium alloy and the electrodes with grown film at the four volume flow rates were respectively (124±1)°, (116±1)°, (115±1)°, (113±1)°. The experiment results showed that all the grown graphene could effectively improve the wettability, reduce the contact angle and then increase the actual contact area between the liquid metal and copper electrode. The study indicates that the growth of graphene films on the surface of copper electrodes can effectively reduce the reaction between copper and gallium and improve the stability of the solid-liquid contact resistance. What is more, the control of the contact stress on the contact surface can quantitatively change the contact resistance by orders of magnitude.
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