国增磊,李敏,王淑峰,迟静,陈琳琳,梁斌,薛均贤,杜中鹏,郭智新.金属表面减摩方法研究综述[J].表面技术,2023,52(10):20-31.
GUO Zeng-lei,LI Min,WANG Shu-feng,CHI Jing,CHEN Lin-lin,LIANG Bin,XUE Jun-xian,DU Zhong-peng,GUO Zhi-xin.Research Review on Surface Antifriction Methods of Metals[J].Surface Technology,2023,52(10):20-31
金属表面减摩方法研究综述
Research Review on Surface Antifriction Methods of Metals
投稿时间:2022-08-20  修订日期:2023-01-09
DOI:10.16490/j.cnki.issn.1001-3660.2023.10.002
中文关键词:  化学减摩  物理减摩  自润滑涂层  原位合成  梯度纳米  表面织构  制备技术
英文关键词:chemical antifriction  physical antifriction  self-lubricating coating  in-situ synthesis  gradient nanostructure  surface texture  preparation techniques
基金项目:山东省自然科学基金资助项目(ZR2014EMM009);山东科技大学横向技术开发项目(20210638)
作者单位
国增磊 山东科技大学 材料科学与工程学院,山东 青岛 266590 
李敏 山东科技大学 材料科学与工程学院,山东 青岛 266590 
王淑峰 山东科技大学 材料科学与工程学院,山东 青岛 266590 
迟静 山东科技大学 材料科学与工程学院,山东 青岛 266590 
陈琳琳 山东科技大学 材料科学与工程学院,山东 青岛 266590 
梁斌 山东科技大学 材料科学与工程学院,山东 青岛 266590 
薛均贤 山东科技大学 材料科学与工程学院,山东 青岛 266590 
杜中鹏 山东科技大学 材料科学与工程学院,山东 青岛 266590 
郭智新 山东科技大学 材料科学与工程学院,山东 青岛 266590 
AuthorInstitution
GUO Zeng-lei School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Shandong Qingdao 266590, China 
LI Min School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Shandong Qingdao 266590, China 
WANG Shu-feng School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Shandong Qingdao 266590, China 
CHI Jing School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Shandong Qingdao 266590, China 
CHEN Lin-lin School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Shandong Qingdao 266590, China 
LIANG Bin School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Shandong Qingdao 266590, China 
XUE Jun-xian School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Shandong Qingdao 266590, China 
DU Zhong-peng School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Shandong Qingdao 266590, China 
GUO Zhi-xin School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Shandong Qingdao 266590, China 
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中文摘要:
      磨损失效是金属材料主要的失效形式之一,因此减少材料表面磨损一直是金属改性的研究重点。基于粘着理论、润滑相结构、润滑膜行为等不同角度,对如何提升金属材料的减摩性能进行解读,并根据理化性质的改变,综述2类表面减摩方向:化学减摩、物理减摩。化学减摩由自润滑涂层展开,阐述自润滑体系的分类,从粘着摩擦力探究润滑膜的减摩机制。介绍外部直接添加与原位合成的减摩方法。举例了4种自润滑涂层的制备工艺:喷涂、气相沉积、微弧氧化、高能束熔覆。物理减摩中的梯度纳米和表面织构是当前的研究热点。通过探究脆性摩擦层与应力应变的变化,研究梯度纳米结构的变形机制,介绍了机械研磨、激光冲击等制备技术。表面织构在不同摩擦状态下,拥有储油、集屑、流体动压润滑的功能,常见的制备方法有激光刻蚀、化学刻蚀等。最后对金属表面减摩的未来发展进行展望:从多尺度追溯起源,完善摩擦理论;利用原位合成、微观结构活动探究如何延长减摩时间;展开多元体系、工艺的优化,向经济实用的方向发展。
英文摘要:
      In rail transit, aerospace, mining and other industries, metals are the raw materials with serious loss, and wear failure is one of the main failure forms of metal materials. Therefore, reducing the surface wear of materials has always been the research focus in the field of metal modification. Based on various friction theories, the work aims to explain how to improve the antifriction of metal surface from different angles, such as adhesion theory, design characteristics of lubricating phase, behavior of lubricating films, changes of stress and roughness, etc. According to the change of physical and chemical properties, two common forms of surface antifriction were summarized:chemical antifriction and physical antifriction. Chemical antifriction was expounded from self-lubricating coating. The classification of self-lubricating systems was detailed, such as compounds with layered structures like MoS2 and Fe, Co, Ni metal-based composite systems. The antifriction mechanism of coating during the formation of lubricating film was studied from the angle of view of adhesive friction. Antifriction methods of direct addition and in-situ synthesis were introduced. The origin and development of in-situ reactions were explored, and synthesis technologies such as self-propagating high temperature synthesis were introduced. Four methods of preparing self-lubricating coatings were shown, and their research progress, advantages and disadvantages were also introduced:research results of cold spraying and thermal spraying, and improvement of bonding strength. Scholars prepared near- hypersynovial membrane by vapor deposition. In-situ reaction and nano-modification in micro-arc oxidation were introduced. The coating of high energy beam cladding had good molding quality and was widely used in engineering applications. Future development should be reflected in new lubricating systems and technical cooperation. Gradient nanostructure and surface texture in physical antifriction are the current research hotspots. Compared with nanomaterials and coarse-grained materials, the gradient nanostructures have excellent mechanical properties and a combination of strength and toughness. The deformation mechanism of the gradient structure is studied by exploring the changes of brittle friction layer and stress-strain in the friction process. The main techniques for the preparation of gradient nanomaterials are self nanocrystallization and non-self nanocrystallization. The techniques of surface mechanical attrition treatment and laser shocking in self-nanocrystallization are introduced, and it is pointed out that the in-situ endogenous and gradient nanostructure should be combined to stabilize the organization structure in the future. Surface texture reduces friction by different texture structures. In different frictional states, it has the functions of oil storage, abrasive dust collection and hydrodynamic lubrication. Different texture shape parameters also have certain effect on the antifriction. The commonly used preparation methods are laser etching, chemical milling, etc. The intelligent texture system of surface texture should be developed by bionics, so as to expand its applications in sports training and other fields. The theoretical research, stability and application of technology are reviewed. The future development direction of metal surface antifriction is pointed out:tracing the origin of friction from multiple scales and perfecting the theories, exploring how to prolong the antifriction time by in-situ synthesis and microstructure activities, expanding the optimization of multicomponent systems and processes, and making the metal antifriction develop in the direction of economy and practicality.
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