胡焰,陈加东,戴庆文,黄巍,王晓雷.磨料射流加工技术的发展与研究现状[J].表面技术,2022,51(11):80-98.
HU Yan,CHEN Jia-dong,DAI Qing-wen,HUANG Wei,WANG Xiao-lei.Recent Advances and Status of Abrasive Jet Machining Technology[J].Surface Technology,2022,51(11):80-98
磨料射流加工技术的发展与研究现状
Recent Advances and Status of Abrasive Jet Machining Technology
  
DOI:10.16490/j.cnki.issn.1001-3660.2022.11.008
中文关键词:  磨料射流加工  混合方式  性能对比  应用领域  表面光整
英文关键词:abrasive jet machining  mixing method  performance comparison  application fields  surface finishing
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(52175172);航空科学基金(2020Z040052002);江苏省研究生科研与实践创新计划项目(KYCX20_0182)
作者单位
胡焰 南京航空航天大学 直升机传动技术重点实验室,南京 210016 
陈加东 南京航空航天大学 直升机传动技术重点实验室,南京 210016 
戴庆文 南京航空航天大学 直升机传动技术重点实验室,南京 210016 
黄巍 南京航空航天大学 直升机传动技术重点实验室,南京 210016 
王晓雷 南京航空航天大学 直升机传动技术重点实验室,南京 210016 
AuthorInstitution
HU Yan National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Helicopter Transmission, Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China 
CHEN Jia-dong National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Helicopter Transmission, Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China 
DAI Qing-wen National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Helicopter Transmission, Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China 
HUANG Wei National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Helicopter Transmission, Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China 
WANG Xiao-lei National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Helicopter Transmission, Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China 
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中文摘要:
      与其他加工技术相比,磨料射流因具有无热损伤、高柔性、材料适用性强等特点,一直是国内外学者研究的热点。近年来,磨料射流被广泛用在微切割、微流道制备、表面抛光等领域,其发展趋势已经由宏观尺度向微观尺度转变,由粗加工向精加工转变。从射流的本质或根源来看,传统技术主要分为(磨料)水射流、浆体射流和磨料气射流。首先对上述各射流技术的发展背景、工作原理进行了综述。此外,还介绍了最近出现的多相射流和高压浆体射流等新技术。面对复杂的应用需求,如何挑选出合适的射流技术是一个难题。鉴于此,对各磨料射流技术的射流速度、工作压力、射流束直径、侵蚀轮廓和加工机理进行了深入分析和比较。最后对各磨料射流技术在微流道制备和表面光整加工等领域的应用情况以及存在的问题进行了论述,并详述了多相射流和浆体射流在表面抛光方面的优缺点。结果表明,磨料气射流拥有低压高速的优点,可以快速地去除材料。磨料气射流的缺点是射流易发散,需要结合掩模制备微流道。目前,掩模磨料气射流能加工宽度低至10 μm的微流道。浆体射流和磨料水射流的射流束直径已经可低至50 μm,能直接在表面刻蚀出大于50 μm的微流道。抛光应用中,浆体射流的材料去除率远低于磨料气射流,但表面粗糙度要好。考虑到两者的优点,多相射流试图在磨料气射流和浆体射流之间建立一个桥梁。同时,与浆体射流的W形侵蚀轮廓相比,多相射流的U形侵蚀轮廓更有利于表面抛光。
英文摘要:
      Compared with traditional machining technology, abrasive jet machining (AJM) has attracted wide attention due to its distinct advantages of negligible thermal effect, high machining flexibility and high machining versatility. In recent years, AJM has been widely used in micro-cutting, micro-flow channel preparation, surface polishing and other fields, and its development has been changed from macroscopic scale to microscopic scale, from rough machining to fine machining. From the view of the nature or origin of abrasive jet, traditional abrasive jets are mainly divided into (abrasive) water jet, abrasive slurry jet and abrasive air jet. Firstly, this paper summarized the backgrounds, principles and characteristics of each jet technology. Also, some new technologies such as multiphase jet machining and high-pressure abrasive slurry jet machining developed in recent years were reviewed. When facing the complex requirements of application, how to select the most suitable abrasive jet technology for application is difficult. Then, in order to better understand and apply these abrasive jet technologies, this paper made a deep analysis and comparison from the following aspects:jet velocity, jet pressure, jet beam diameter, erosion profile and machining mechanism. Finally, the applications in microchannel preparation and surface finishing and the existing problems were analyzed. The advantages and disadvantages between multiphase jet and low-pressure abrasive slurry jet in terms of surface polishing were also analyzed in-depth. The results show that the abrasive air jet has the advantage of using low air pressure to achieve a relatively high-speed flow, thus the material removal can be quick. For example, an air jet of 0.8 MPa can achieve an average particle velocity of 292 m/s, while abrasive water jet requires an operating pressure of at least 180 MPa to achieve this velocity. In abrasive air jet, however, the expansion of air usually causes the air-particle jet to diverge significantly after leaving the orifice, thereby enlarging the machining area, i.e., resulting in a poor resolution. A widely used method is to cover a metallic erosion resistant mask on the surface of workpiece to expose only the area processed by the abrasive air jet. At present, masked abrasive air jet can produce microchannels with widths as low as 10 μm. The jet beam diameter of abrasive slurry jet and abrasive water jet can be as low as 50 μm, and thus the microchannel can be directly etched on the target surface. In terms of fluid jet polishing, liquid-based abrasive slurry jet polishing has lower material removal rate than abrasive air jet polishing but provides better surface roughness. With an eye to combine both advantages, an attempt to build a bridge between air and water-based abrasive jet polishing systems was presented as multiphase jet. W-shape removal is more complicated for polishing path planning and would induce mid-high spatial frequency texture on the polished surface. Therefore, compared with the W-shaped erosion profile in abrasive slurry jet, the U-shaped erosion profile in multiphase jet is more beneficial to obtain a flat polished surface. This review helps to understand the subtle differences among the abrasive jets, and provides a reference for applying abrasive jet machining technology to microfabrication and surface finishing.
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