尚伦霖,张广安,何东青,李文生.Cr3C2-NiCr/TiSiN-CrAlN复合涂层制备及高温摩擦学行为研究[J].表面技术,2022,51(11):70-79.
SHANG Lun-lin,ZHANG Guang-an,HE Dong-qing,LI Wen-sheng.Preparation and High Temperature Tribological Behavior of Cr3C2-NiCr/TiSiN-CrAlN duplex coating[J].Surface Technology,2022,51(11):70-79
Cr3C2-NiCr/TiSiN-CrAlN复合涂层制备及高温摩擦学行为研究
Preparation and High Temperature Tribological Behavior of Cr3C2-NiCr/TiSiN-CrAlN duplex coating
  
DOI:10.16490/j.cnki.issn.1001-3660.2022.11.007
中文关键词:  Cr3C2-NiCr/TiSiN-CrAlN复合涂层  机械性能  高温摩擦  磨损机制  协同效应
英文关键词:Cr3C2-NiCr/TiSiN-CrAlN duplex coating  mechanical properties  high temperature tribological properties  wear mechanisms  synergistic effect
基金项目:中国科学院兰州化学物理研究所“一三五”重大突破项目(KJZLZD-3);国家自然科学基金(U21A20127、51905244)
作者单位
尚伦霖 兰州理工大学 材料科学与工程学院,兰州 730050;中国科学院兰州化学物理研究所 固体润滑国家重点实验室,兰州 730000 
张广安 中国科学院兰州化学物理研究所 固体润滑国家重点实验室,兰州 730000 
何东青 兰州理工大学 材料科学与工程学院,兰州 730050 
李文生 兰州理工大学 材料科学与工程学院,兰州 730050 
AuthorInstitution
SHANG Lun-lin School of Materials Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050, China;State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China 
ZHANG Guang-an State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China 
HE Dong-qing School of Materials Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050, China 
LI Wen-sheng School of Materials Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050, China 
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中文摘要:
      目的 基于表面耐高温薄膜和高承载金属陶瓷涂层性能优势协同的设计思想,制备Cr3C2-NiCr/ TiSiN-CrAlN复合涂层,提高硬质薄膜机械性能和不同温度下的摩擦学性能。方法 采用超音速火焰喷涂(HVOF)和电弧离子镀(AIP)技术制备Cr3C2-NiCr/TiSiN-CrAlN复合涂层,通过扫描电子显微镜、X射线衍射仪、纳米压入仪、划痕仪和高温摩擦磨损试验机等对复合涂层的微观结构、机械性能和不同温度下的摩擦磨损行为进行系统研究。结果 Cr3C2-NiCr/TiSiN-CrAlN复合涂层微观结构致密,界面结合良好,其顶层耐高温薄膜由CrAlN结合层和TiSiN-CrAlN交替多层构成,总厚度约6.7 μm,低于不锈钢表面直接沉积TiSiN-CrAlN薄膜的厚度(约9.6 μm)。Cr3C2-NiCr支撑层微观结构和形貌影响其表面沉积TiSiN-CrAlN薄膜的结晶性。Cr3C2-NiCr/TiSiN-CrAlN复合涂层具有优异的机械性能,其纳米硬度和弹性模量分别高达(37.3±2.6)GPa和(506.1±10.6)GPa,结合力相比不锈钢表面TiSiN-CrAlN多层膜显著提高。得益于Cr3C2-NiCr支撑层的引入,复合涂层在不同温度下的摩擦因数和磨损率均比单一薄膜的低,其摩擦因数在900 ℃下可稳定保持在0.44左右,磨损率约为3.13×10‒5 mm3/(N.m),表现出良好的高温摩擦学性能。此外,磨损机制分析表明,500 ℃以下主要为磨粒磨损和黏着磨损,摩擦因数较大、不稳定,但磨损率基本不变;700 ℃时由于Cr3C2-NiCr层的支撑作用而无明显的疲劳磨损,氧化磨损发生;900 ℃时氧化磨损主导,摩擦界面生成主要成分为TiO2、Cr2O3的摩擦反应膜。结论 采用HVOF和PVD相结合的方法在不锈钢表面制备的Cr3C2-NiCr/TiSiN-CrAlN复合涂层具有良好的机械性能和优异的高温摩擦学性能,可进一步改善耐高温薄膜的综合性能,具有良好的应用前景。
英文摘要:
      Metal nitride films with high hardness, high wear resistance and excellent thermal stability provide feasible approach to improve the tribological properties and high temperature anti-oxidation ability of mechanical components. However, when serving in in high temperature harsh environment, the physical vapor deposition (PVD) nitride films are usually limited because of the softening and plastic deformation of metal substrates. The duplex coating system consisting of oxidation-resistant PVD nitride films and hard cermet coating open opportunities for solving this limitation. In the present work, the Cr3C2-NiCr/TiSiN-CrAlN duplex coating consisting of a thick Cr3C2-NiCr support layer and a thin TiSiN-CrAlN alternating multilayer film were prepared on stainless steel substrates by combining high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and multi-arc ion plating technologies. The microstructure, surface morphology and mechanical properties of the Cr3C2-NiCr/TiSiN-CrAlN duplex coating were in detail characterized and analyzed by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, scratch instrument and nano-indentation tester. Meanwhile, the tribological properties of single TiSiN-CrAlN film and duplex coating were evaluated using a reciprocating ball-on-disk tribometer at different temperatures. Results showed that the TiSiN-CrAlN film deposited on stainless steel and Cr3C2-NiCr coating has clear multilayer structure, including a CrAlN adhesion layer and a TiSiN-CrAlN alternating multilayer film. The duplex coating displayed dense and uniform microstructure and a well-bonded interface was observed between Cr3C2-NiCr coating and PVD film. The total thickness of the TiSiN-CrAlN film deposited on the Cr3C2-NiCr coating surface was about 6.7 μm, which was significantly lower than its thickness deposited on stainless steel surface. The crystallinity of the top TiSiN-CrAlN film was affected by the special surface microstructure and morphology of Cr3C2-NiCr support layer. Introduction of the Cr3C2-NiCr support layer significantly improved the mechanical properties of the duplex coating. Its nanohardness and elastic modulus were (37.3±2.6) GPa and (506.1±10.6) GPa, respectively. The adhesion strength of duplex coating is significantly improved compared to the TiSiN-CrAlN multilayer film on the stainless steel surface. Compared with single TiSiN-CrAlN film, the duplex coating exhibited superior tribological properties at different temperatures, which was mainly due to the high load-bearing capacity of Cr3C2-NiCr support layer. When the temperature raised to 900 ℃, the friction coefficient and wear rate of the duplex coating were 0.44 and 3.13×10‒5 mm3/(N.m), respectively. Furthermore, the analysis of the friction and wear mechanism indicated that there were two different tribological behaviors depending on the temperature. Below 500 ℃, the Cr3C2-NiCr/TiSiN-CrAlN duplex coating showed a high and fluctuant friction coefficient but a mild wear rate because the sliding process was governed by abrasive wear and a slight oxidation took place. At 700 ℃, there was no obvious fatigue wear due to the support of the Cr3C2-NiCr support layer, and oxidation wear occurred. At 900 ℃, the oxidation wear dominated the wear process due to the strong oxidation of sliding surface. A large amount of tribo-films mainly composed of TiO2 and Cr2O3 were produced, which led to the low and stable friction coefficient but high wear rate.
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