张枝森,王永祥,何柏林.超声冲击改进地铁车辆焊接裂纹修复质量的探究[J].表面技术,2021,50(9):99-107.
ZHANG Zhi-sen,WANG Yong-xiang,HE Bo-lin.Research on Improving Repair Quality of Welding Crack of Metro Vehicle by Ultrasonic Impact[J].Surface Technology,2021,50(9):99-107
超声冲击改进地铁车辆焊接裂纹修复质量的探究
Research on Improving Repair Quality of Welding Crack of Metro Vehicle by Ultrasonic Impact
投稿时间:2020-09-23  修订日期:2021-01-18
DOI:10.16490/j.cnki.issn.1001-3660.2021.09.009
中文关键词:  超声冲击  疲劳裂纹  焊接结构  应力集中  残余压应力
英文关键词:ultrasonic impact  fatigue crack  welded structure  stress concentration  residual compressive stress
基金项目:
作者单位
张枝森 上海地铁维护保障有限公司 车辆分公司,上海 200030 
王永祥 华东交通大学 材料科学与工程学院,南昌330013 
何柏林 华东交通大学 材料科学与工程学院,南昌330013 
AuthorInstitution
ZHANG Zhi-sen Vehicle Branch, Shanghai Rail Transit Maintenance Support Co., Ltd, Shanghai 200030, China 
WANG Yong-xiang College of Material Science and Engineering, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013, China 
HE Bo-lin College of Material Science and Engineering, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013, China 
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中文摘要:
      目的 针对地铁车辆车体、转向架构架疲劳裂纹频发的问题,探索超声冲击工艺增强焊接结构件疲劳强度的机理和可行性。方法 分别利用机械打磨和不同工艺参数的超声冲击处理SMA490BW钢焊接对接接头,借助应力分析仪、金相显微镜、超声疲劳机、扫描电镜等,综合分析试样的应力分布、接头形貌、晶粒组织、疲劳寿命以及断口形貌,以对比不同处理方式的强化效果。结果 超声冲击处理可有效改善对接接头的应力集中,细化表层晶粒,并调整表面应力场的分布,将焊接残余拉应力转为较大的残余压应力。在工艺参数1.5 A/10 min的冲击下,试样可获得最高平均寿命3.35×107周次,是机械打磨试样的3.8倍,是原始试样的10倍,且疲劳断裂失效模式不变。结论 超声冲击通过表面改性,显著提高焊接结构的疲劳寿命,且优于机械打磨方法。超声冲击法高度契合车辆裂纹修复的需求,但相关标准、设备、工艺不够完善,建议对超声冲击方法进一步探索,并最终将其纳入地铁车辆裂纹修复工艺。
英文摘要:
      In order to solve the problem of fatigue crack of metro vehicle body and bogie frame, the mechanism and feasibility of ultrasonic impact technology to enhance the fatigue strength of welded structure were explored. In order to obtain the strengthening effect of different treatment methods, the welded butt joints of SMA490BW steel were treated by mechanical grinding and ultrasonic impact with different process parameters. The stress distribution, joint morphology, grain structure, fracture morphology and fatigue life of the specimens were analyzed by means of stress analyzer, metallographic microscope, ultrasonic fatigue machine and scanning electron microscope. The results show that ultrasonic impact can effectively improve the stress concentration of butt joint, refine the surface grain and adjust the distribution of surface stress field, and transform the welding residual tensile stress into larger residual compressive stress. Under the impact of 1.5 A/10 min process parameters, the maximum average life of the sample is 3.35×107 cycles, which is 3.8 times of the mechanical grinding sample and 10 times of the original sample, and the fatigue fracture failure mode remains unchanged. The results show that ultrasonic peening can significantly improve the fatigue life of welded structure by surface modification, and it is better than mechanical grinding method. The ultrasonic impact method is highly suitable for the needs of vehicle crack repair, but the relevant standards, equipment and technology are not perfect. It is suggested that the ultrasonic impact method be further explored and finally incorporated into the subway vehicle crack repair process.
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