王兆新,任建华,姚传慧,尹冠华.硫酸铜浓度及电流密度的变化对游离微珠辅助磨电铸铜的影响[J].表面技术,2023,52(1):401-409, 420.
WANG Zhao-xin,REN Jian-hua,YAO Chuan-hui,YIN Guan-hua.Effects of Copper Sulfate Concentration and Current Density on FreeMicrobeads Assisted Grinding Electroformed Copper[J].Surface Technology,2023,52(1):401-409, 420
硫酸铜浓度及电流密度的变化对游离微珠辅助磨电铸铜的影响
Effects of Copper Sulfate Concentration and Current Density on FreeMicrobeads Assisted Grinding Electroformed Copper
  
DOI:10.16490/j.cnki.issn.1001-3660.2023.01.041
中文关键词:  酸性电铸铜  辅助磨  硫酸铜质量浓度  电流密度  电流效率  表面形貌  显微硬度
英文关键词:acid electroformed copper  auxiliary grinding  mass concentration of copper sulfate  current density  current efficiency  surface topography  microhardness
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年基金(51805302)
作者单位
王兆新 山东理工大学 机械工程学院,山东 淄博 255000 
任建华 山东理工大学 机械工程学院,山东 淄博 255000 
姚传慧 山东理工大学 机械工程学院,山东 淄博 255000 
尹冠华 山东理工大学 机械工程学院,山东 淄博 255000 
AuthorInstitution
WANG Zhao-xin School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Shandong Zibo 255000, China 
REN Jian-hua School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Shandong Zibo 255000, China 
YAO Chuan-hui School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Shandong Zibo 255000, China 
YIN Guan-hua School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Shandong Zibo 255000, China 
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中文摘要:
      目的 研究硫酸铜浓度及电流密度的变化对游离微珠辅助磨电铸铜电流效率和沉积层表面形貌、显微硬度的影响。方法 使用立式阴极回转电铸设备进行单因素电铸试验,在硫酸铜质量浓度分别为40、80、120 g/L的条件下,将电流密度由1 A/dm2增至4 A/dm2进行试验。使用库仑计测量记录流经试验回路的电荷量,使用精密电子天平称取铜沉积层的质量,使用扫描电子显微镜观察铜沉积层的表面微观形貌,使用显微硬度计测量铜沉积层的显微硬度。结果 硫酸铜质量浓度为40 g/L,电流密度由1 A/dm2提高到4 A/dm2时,沉积层的表面形貌逐渐趋于光滑平整,电流效率随着电流密度的增加先提高、后降低,在电流密度为2 A/dm2时增至最高95.4%,在电流密度为4 A/dm2时下降至最低92.7%。电流密度由1 A/dm2提高到3 A/dm2时,显微硬度由120.3HV增至最高139.8HV。电流密度为4 A/dm2时,沉积层的表面粗糙度Ra最低,为0.19 μm。硫酸铜质量浓度为80 g/L条件下,电流密度为4 A/dm2时的沉积层表面最为平整,沉积层的表面粗糙度较低,为0.62 μm。电流密度由1 A/dm2提高到4 A/dm2时,电流效率由94.1%增至最高97.2%,显微硬度由119.4HV增至最高146.3HV。硫酸铜质量浓度为120 g/L条件下,电流密度由1 A/dm2提高到4 A/dm2时,沉积层表面的毛刺逐渐变小,且数量也逐渐减少,电流效率由93.9%增至最高97.6%,显微硬度由117.3HV增至最高136.4HV。结论 在一定条件下提高电流密度或降低硫酸铜浓度,均可改善沉积层的表面形貌,提高沉积层的显微硬度。游离微珠的运动磨削既可以改善沉积层的表面形貌,也可以改善沉积层内部的晶粒组织结构,提高沉积层的显微硬度,但微珠的运动会磨削掉沉积层表面微量的铜,降低电铸铜的电流效率。
英文摘要:
      The work aims to study the effects of copper sulfate concentration and current density on the surface morphology, microhardness and current efficiency of free microbeads assisted grinding electroformed copper deposition. The current density was increased from 1 A/dm2 to 4 A/dm2 for single factor electroformed copper test under the conditions of copper sulfate concentration of 40 g/L, 80 g/L and 120 g/L with a vertical cathode rotary electroforming equipment, including cathode movement and conductive part, anode hanger, free bead assisted grinding electroforming unit, electrodeposition unit, electroforming liquid circulation and temperature control system. The free bead assisted grinding electroforming unit was a circular cathode basket that limited the beads within a certain range. The inner side of the anode basket was close to the nylon yarn net to prevent the beads from leaking out. A coulomb meter was used to measure and record the amount of charge flowing through the test circuit. A precision electronic balance was used to measure the quality of the copper deposition layer. A scanning electron microscope was used to observe the surface microscopic morphology of the copper deposition layer. A microhardness tester was used to measure the microhardness of the copper deposited layer. A microhardness tester was used to measure the microhardness of the copper deposition. And a roughness measuring instrument was used to measure the surface roughness of the deposited layer. When the concentration of copper sulfate was 40 g/L and the current density increased from 1 A/dm2 to 4 A/dm2, the surface morphology of the electrodeposition gradually became smooth and flat. The current efficiency increased first and then decreased with the increase of current density. The current efficiency came up to the highest 95.4% at a current density of 2 A/dm2, and decreased to the lowest 92.7% at a current density of 4 A/dm2. When the current density increased from 1 A/dm2 to 3 A/dm2, the microhardness increased from 120.3HV to 139.8HV. The lowest surface roughness was Ra 0.19 μm at a current density of 4 A/dm2. When the concentration of copper sulfate was 80 g/L, and the current density increased to 4 A/dm2, the surface roughness of the electroformed layer was Ra 0.62 μm, the current efficiency and microhardness were the highest. The current efficiency increased from 94.1% to 97.2%, and the microhardness increased from 119.4HV to 146.3HV with the current density increasing from 1 A/dm2 to 4 A/dm2. When the concentration of copper sulfate was 120 g/L, the burrs on the surface of the electroformed layer became smaller and the number of burrs decreased gradually. The current efficiency increased from 93.9% to 97.6%, and the microhardness increased from 117.3HV to 136.4HV with current density increasing from 1 A/dm2 to 4 A/dm2. When the current density was 4 A/dm2, the burrs were the least and smaller, and the current efficiency and microhardness increased to the highest. The surface morphology and microhardness of the electroformed layer could be improved by increasing current density or decreasing the concentration of copper sulfate under certain conditions. The grinding of free microbeads can not only improve the surface morphology of the electroformed copper layer, but also improve the grain structure and microhardness of the electroformed copper layer. However, the movement of the microbeads will grind away trace amounts of copper from the surface of electroformed copper layer and reduces the current efficiency of copper electroforming.
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