杨森,黄开虎,李静,王猛,叶梓萌,赵可馨,邓雨林,张凤英.不同类型激光器对激光多层沉积Ti-35V-15Cr合金显微组织及性能的影响[J].表面技术,2023,52(1):354-363.
YANG Sen,HUANG Kai-hu,LI Jing,WANG Meng,YE Zi-meng,ZHAO Ke-xin,DENG Yu-lin,ZHANG Feng-ying.Influence of Laser Types on Microstructure and Performance of Laser Multilayer Deposition of Ti-35V-15Cr Alloy[J].Surface Technology,2023,52(1):354-363
不同类型激光器对激光多层沉积Ti-35V-15Cr合金显微组织及性能的影响
Influence of Laser Types on Microstructure and Performance of Laser Multilayer Deposition of Ti-35V-15Cr Alloy
  
DOI:10.16490/j.cnki.issn.1001-3660.2023.01.036
中文关键词:  激光多层沉积  Ti-35V-15Cr  工艺设备  显微组织  抗阻燃性能  枝晶偏析
英文关键词:laser multilayer deposition  Ti-35V-15Cr  process equipment  microstructure  flame-retardant properties  dendritic segregation
基金项目:空军工程大学等离子体动力学实验室科学技术基金(N0614220206021804);陕西省重点研发计划(2023-YBGY-359);西安市科技计划(21ZCZZHXJS-QCY6-0001、21CXLHTJSGG-QCY8-0003);中国中东欧高校联合教育项目(2021108);中央高校基本科研业务费项目(300102312407、X202210710372)
作者单位
杨森 长安大学 材料科学与工程学院,西安 710064 
黄开虎 长安大学 材料科学与工程学院,西安 710064 
李静 陕西航天动力高科技股份有限公司,西安 710064 
王猛 西北工业大学 凝固技术国家重点实验室,西安 710072 
叶梓萌 长安大学 材料科学与工程学院,西安 710064 
赵可馨 长安大学 材料科学与工程学院,西安 710064 
邓雨林 长安大学 材料科学与工程学院,西安 710064 
张凤英 长安大学 材料科学与工程学院,西安 710064 
AuthorInstitution
YANG Sen School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chang’an Univeristiy, Xi’an 710064, China 
HUANG Kai-hu School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chang’an Univeristiy, Xi’an 710064, China 
LI Jing Shaanxi Aerospace Power High-Tech Co.Ltd., Xi’an 710064, China 
WANG Meng State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072, China 
YE Zi-meng School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chang’an Univeristiy, Xi’an 710064, China 
ZHAO Ke-xin School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chang’an Univeristiy, Xi’an 710064, China 
DENG Yu-lin School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chang’an Univeristiy, Xi’an 710064, China 
ZHANG Feng-ying School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chang’an Univeristiy, Xi’an 710064, China 
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中文摘要:
      目的 探讨半导体激光器与CO2激光器对激光多层沉积合金显微组织及性能的影响机理。方法 以充分混合的Ti、V、Cr粉末为原料,于预先打磨后的Ti-6Al-4V基板上使用CO2和半导体两种激光器进行激光多层沉积Ti-35V-15Cr,通过光学显微镜和扫描电镜、激光点火法、显微硬度测试和Jmat-Pro软件计算分别评价不同激光器下沉积试样的显微组织特点、抗阻燃性能对比和组织形成机理分析。结果 半导体激光器与CO2激光器沉积的试样显微组织存在很大差别,前者为全等轴组织,等轴晶平均尺寸为100 μm,晶粒大小与形状基本一致,沉积区与基材之间的过渡区域存在平均宽度为200 µm、长度为526 µm、长宽比为2.6的类等轴晶,通过扫描电镜观察发现在部分等轴晶内部存在亚晶结构;后者主要为平均尺寸120~200 µm的柱状晶组织,沉积试样顶部为平均直径为52 µm的细小等轴晶,通过扫描电镜观察发现枝晶偏析组织,枝晶间的距离为5~10 µm。抗阻燃性方面,半导体激光器制备的Ti-35V-15Cr试样的抗阻燃性能略优于CO2激光器制备的Ti-35V-15Cr试样,平均显微硬度前者为375HV,后者为363HV。结论 由于激光多层沉积Ti-35V-15Cr对半导体激光器与CO2激光器产生的激光吸收率不同而使二者形成完全不同的显微组织,由半导体激光器制备的Ti-35V-15Cr试样显微硬度更高、抗阻燃性能更好。
英文摘要:
      The laser is the main component of the laser additive manufacturing system. The different absorption rates of the material when applying different types of lasers will have a significant impact on the microstructure and properties of the laser additive manufactured alloy. In this research, we investigated the microstructure, flame-retardant properties, and microhardness of Ti-35V-15Cr alloy deposited by laser multilayer deposition (LMD) technology under the conditions of two different types of lasers, semiconductor and CO2, and explored the mechanism of the influence of different types of lasers on the microstructure and properties of the alloy. The microstructure of Ti-35V-15Cr flame-retardant titanium alloy formed by the semiconductor laser with a wavelength of 1.06 μm and the CO2 laser with a wavelength of 10.6 μm is significantly different. The average width of equiaxed grains is 100 μm, and the grain size and shape are basically the same, but in the transition area between the deposition layer and the substrate, there is an equiaxed-like transition microstructure with an average width of 200 µm, length of 526 µm, and aspect ratio of 2.6. The existence of this microstructure transformation is due to the variation of the content of the alloy elements Al, V, and Cr near the interface and the epitaxial growth characteristics of the grains. The formation of such subgrain structure is attributed to the local dislocation movement and alloy element diffusion caused by the large thermal accumulation and internal stress during laser forming, which not only inhibits the formation of segregation but also promotes the local dislocation movement and finally forms dislocation cells; whereas the microstructure of the alloy formed by the CO2 laser is mainly columnar grains with an average size of 120-200 µm, and the top of the deposited specimen is a fine equiaxed grain layer with an average diameter of 52 µm. Compared with the former, the layer band morphology of the deposited specimens with CO2 laser is more obvious and the top equiaxed layer is thinner, but unlike the former, the dendrite segregation inside the grains can be observed by scanning electron microscopy, and the distance between the dendrites is about 5-10 µm. The heat input and heat accumulation are therefore insufficient to cause significant local dislocation motion and diffusion of alloy elements, which leads to dendrite segregation. The effect of titanium alloy on the absorption rate of different types of lasers was studied by laser energy absorption rate equation and Jmat-pro software calculation, and it was found that the absorption rate of Ti-35V-15Cr titanium alloy to semiconductor laser energy is much higher than that of CO2 laser energy, and the former is nearly three times of the latter, which proves that the laser absorption rate has a great influence on the formation of different microstructures. By means of a multivariate alloy solidification columnar/equiaxed transition model, it was found that the higher heat input and accumulation led to a lower temperature gradient at the solid-liquid interface front when the alloy was formed by a semiconductor laser, making it easier to form equiaxed grains. The microhardness of the alloys formed by the two lasers was tested, and the average hardness of the alloy formed by the semiconductor laser was 375HV and that of the alloy formed by the CO2 laser was 363HV, the former being slightly higher than that of the latter. Then, the flame-retardant properties of the alloys formed by semiconductor and CO2 laser were evaluated by laser ignition method, which was found that the flame retardancy of Ti-35V-15Cr flame retardant titanium alloy formed by a semiconductor laser was slightly better than that of the alloy ford by a CO2 laser in both cases.
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