张德强,张吉庆,李金华,郭忠娟.离焦量对 45# 钢表面激光熔覆镍基碳化钨粉的影响[J].表面技术,2015,44(12):92-97.
ZHANG De-qiang,ZHANG Ji-qing,LI Jin-hua,GUO Zhong-juan.Effect of Defocusing Amount on Laser Cladding of Self-fluxing Ni-based WC on 45# Steel Surface[J].Surface Technology,2015,44(12):92-97
离焦量对 45# 钢表面激光熔覆镍基碳化钨粉的影响
Effect of Defocusing Amount on Laser Cladding of Self-fluxing Ni-based WC on 45# Steel Surface
投稿时间:2015-07-23  修订日期:2015-12-20
DOI:10.16490/j.cnki.issn.1001-3660.2015.12.015
中文关键词:  激光熔覆  离焦量  成形质量  镍基碳化钨  显微硬度  金相组织
英文关键词:laser cladding  defocusing amount  forming quality  Ni-based WC  microhardness  microstructure
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划项目(2012BAF12B08-5)
作者单位
张德强 辽宁工业大学 机械工程与自动化学院, 辽宁 锦州 121001 
张吉庆 辽宁工业大学 机械工程与自动化学院, 辽宁 锦州 121001 
李金华 辽宁工业大学 机械工程与自动化学院, 辽宁 锦州 121001 
郭忠娟 辽宁工业大学 机械工程与自动化学院, 辽宁 锦州 121001 
AuthorInstitution
ZHANG De-qiang Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Liaoning University of Technology, Jinzhou 121001, China 
ZHANG Ji-qing Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Liaoning University of Technology, Jinzhou 121001, China 
LI Jin-hua Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Liaoning University of Technology, Jinzhou 121001, China 
GUO Zhong-juan Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Liaoning University of Technology, Jinzhou 121001, China 
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中文摘要:
      目的 研究激光熔覆过程中离焦量对熔覆层成形质量的影响。 方法 在扫描速度(2 mm/ s)和送粉电压(8 V)不变的情况下,通过改变熔覆头与基体间的距离和激光功率,对比分析不同离焦量对熔覆层尺寸、洛氏硬度、界面显微硬度和金相组织的影响,并确定最佳离焦量。 结果 当离焦量 DL = 3,4 mm时,熔覆层表面硬度先逐渐增大后趋于稳定,洛氏硬度高达 55 ~ 56HRC;当离焦量 DL = 5,6 mm 时,由于离焦量过大,导致基体与熔覆层冶金结合不牢固,部分粉末颗粒没有充分熔化附着在熔覆层表面,熔覆层质量较差。 同一功率下,随着离焦量的增大相对熔覆层宽度会减小;当离焦量 DL =3 mm 时,冷却速度最大、熔覆层底部由柱状晶沿着熔体最易散热方向生长明显,在熔覆层上部形成了等轴晶组织。 结论 激光熔覆时离焦量是不可忽视的工艺参数之一,最终优化工艺参数为:扫描速度 2 mm/ s,送粉电压 8 V,激光功率 1200 W,最佳离焦量 3 mm。
英文摘要:
      Objective To study the influence of defocusing amount on the forming quality of the cladding layer during the laser cladding process. Methods When the speed was kept constant at 2 mm/ s and the voltage was 8 V, the influence of different defocusing amount on cladding size, Rockwell hardness, interface microhardness and microstructure was comparatively analyzed by changing the distance between the head of cladding and the substrate as well as the laser power. The optimal defocus amount was determined. Results The surface hardness of the cladding layer first increased gradually and then tended to be stable, and Rockwell hardness reached up to 55 ~56HRC when the defocusing amount was 3 mm or 4 mm. Since the defocus amount was too large, the metallurgical bonding between the substrate and the cladding layer was weak, and part of the powder was not fully melted and attached to the cladding layer surface, so that the quality of cladding was poor when the defocusing amount was 5 mm or 6 mm. Under constant power, the cladding layer width decreased with the increasing defocusing amount. When the defocusing amount was 3 mm, the maximum cooling rate was achieved, and columnar crystals were most likely to grow along the melt radiating, leading to the formation of equiaxed crystal structure on top of the cladding layer. Conclusion Defocusing amount is one of the important process parameters in laser cladding. The finally optimized process parameters were v = 2 mm / s,U = 8 V,P = 1200 W,DL = 3 mm.
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